In general, earthquake is the result of shifting plates or plate tectonics in the Earth’s crust. It occurs when there is frictional stress of the boundaries of the gliding plate. Then, it causes failure at the Earth’s fault line. There is a release of elastic strain energy in every earthquake. At the same time, the waves radiate and shake the ground. In general sense, the scientists are able to predict the locations of future major trembles. However, the locations are not accurate or specific. In some cases of major earthquake, the tsunamis are triggered. Tsunamis are among the most destructive natural disaster that can level the entire cities within a few minutes. Human activity on the other hand can also cause minor earthquake.
Some types of earthquake occur when the upper mantle and Earth’s crust large sections that are called as tectonic plates move past each other. For instance, it was the earthquake that occurred in Hayward and San Andreas faults in California. Moreover, when the plate overruns another place, it also causes earthquake as what had happened in the western coast of the South America, Japan and also in northwest coast of the North America. Meanwhile, another type of earthquake may also happen when the plates collide just like what had happened in several counties like Vietnam, Spain, Europe and also other countries in Asia. With these varieties of earthquake types, the recent earthquakes happened around the world have different characteristics and causes. Therefore, it is the job of the scientists and professional to figure it out.
Apparently, gravity can also cause fault block. It is possible for the surrounded and supported fault blocks to be sinking. Then, it will form the so called distinctive mountain ranges and basin topography. It is the typical configuration in the North American Basin. In this place, the earthquake and tremors accompany the fault blocks that sink between the mountains. There is also chance of volcanic eruptions accompanied with earthquake since there are huge magma masses that move underground. The fatality of this earthquake is not as severe as earthquake caused by the tectonic plates. However, it still needs to be aware of.
In almost every minute, earthquake occurs in various parts of the world. Among the most vulnerable countries to earthquake include Japan, Indonesia, Ecuador, Peru, Italy and other countries across the Ring of Fire. Recently, hundreds of minor trembles and tremors even occur across the world. Some recent earthquakes are minors while some others are majors. Usually, the earthquake with more than 4.0 Mag Richter Scale is considered major. Some of the worst earthquakes recorded in history usually have more than 8.0 Mag Richter Scale. In the last decade, world had witnessed two of the biggest earthquakes that happened in Asia and Japan. These two earthquakes also accompanied with huge tsunami waves that had killed hundreds of thousands of people. Italy had also experienced major earthquake in 2016 but the fatality was not as severe as what had happened in Japan.