The earth has four layers. The bottom is internal core. Upper layer of internal core is external core. The third one is mantle. The outer core of the earth is the crust. The crust is divided into large parts of rocks called tectonic plates. It is floating like a fluid connecting as a large conveyor belts. They converge with each other saving pressures around the plate boundary. The pressures then are accumulated and great in force that enable them to break along the fault line which release them in seismic waves to travel through the land and tremble the ground where we feel it as an earth quake.
Earth Quake and its Popular Names
Earth quake can also be called tremor, quake or temblor. It is the term of the vibrationon the earth’s ground creating a massive destruction on the houses, buildings, roads, and killing so many people. A focus or hypocenter is the location exactly the quake happen. The spot directly above the focus is epicenter. Earth quake is studied by the seismologist. Seismology is a branch of geophysics. Earthquakes deliver seismic waves across the land. Earth quake happens due to break along the fault line. That is what causes the tremble.
A shallow focus can be less than 40 kilometers in depth on the ground. The deep focus can be more than 300 kilometers deep in the ground. An earthquake mostly happens in the plate boundary because earthquake is caused by the tensions that are released in seismic waves in the fault. Therefore, nations are prone to earthquakes when the force in the earth’s tectonic plates are great in amount that eventually be released in a shock wave.
The sudden movement in the earth’s ground actually happened in the earth’s layer called the crust. The geological movement of these rocks inside the earth’s crust is in fact called the fault break. The volcanic eruption also can be a cause for earthquakes. Individuals can feel the tremor in a distance from the epicenter of the quake.
All the standing house can be toppled down when tremor happens in a nation. The fatalities can be massive as the people usually stay in the houses. In 2015, earthquake near Kathmandu, Nepal, the fatalities was around 9000. The damage caused by Haiti earthquake in 2010 also killed more than 200.000 people. Then, the earthquake in Sichuan, China within 2008 claimed around 80.000 people. In Pakistan, the tremor killed around 60000 people. However, there were only hundreds fatalities in Chile earthquake in 2010.
The lack prediction of earthquake plus the weak construction of houses in the countries that were prone to earthquake made the danger escalating when a powerful earthquake hit their ground. In the case of mega thrust earthquake in East Japan and Indian Ocean that caused tsunami wave, it happened in thrust fault. When 9 magnitude earthquake struck eastern of Japan, the axe of the earth moved as well as much as 13 feet.
In a one greater amount of earth quake in magnitude, the power is 30 times greater. For example, 6 magnitude earthquake features 30 times energy than 5 magnitude earthquake. 7 magnitude earthquake is 900 times greater in energy than 5 magnitude earthquake. 8.6 magnitude earthquake is equal to ten thousand times of atomic bomb in the WW 2.