Disaster is a natural catastrophe that took place with violence and resulted in a number of casualties, damage of the public service and infrastructure. One of disaster is earthquake. Actually, earthquake disaster is frequent natural disaster.
Earthquake is one of natural disaster that happened under the earth surface and could destroy everything over the ground that trembled. Buildings or roads could be ruined. Fuel pipes could be leaked. Electricity power could be broken. People that lived near ring of fire might expect more danger from earthquake and need disaster kit and management.
There are also hazards associated with earthquake such as landslides, avalanches, flames, tsunami or ocean wave. The cause of earthquake is definitely in connection with the large part inside the earth outer layer or crust which is called tectonic plates. Different tectonic plates were linked and creating tension accumulated over hundred years.
The result is when there was rupture releasing seismic wave called the earthquake. It could kill many people because the earthquake took place without warning.
The Danger of Earthquake
The activities happened in the earth’s ground were called the seismic waves. Earthquake were maufactured by the linked tectonic plates that moved with the other and thus tension was created. The rupture in the plate boundary between two linked tectonic plates was able to tremble the earth ground in hundreds kilometers or miles.
The largest earthquake ever registered was the one that took place in Chile within 1960 with magnitude of 9.5. However, the past earthquake has helped making the nation aware of the danger of the quake. Ever since that time, the buildings in the Chilean nation were strengthened to be resistant to earthquake. Thus, when a large earthquake in 8.8 magnitude took place in Chile in 2010, there were not major destruction.
Earthquake happened without warning or notification. Thus everyone just could not be in safe condition when the earthquake struck the land. When earthquake hit Haiti in 2010, there were massive casualties caused by a large earthquake in 7.0 magnitude taking place in the most inhibited places. The casualties were more than 200.000 deaths. Within China in 2008, there were 87.580 deaths caused by the earthquake in 7.9 magnitude.
In Armenia, earthquake in 6.8 magnitude has killed 25.000 casualties. Within Mexico, a large earthquake in 8.0 magnitude could kill 9500 people’s lives. In Pakistan, a large earthquake in 7.6 magnitude could murder at least 60.000 lives. In 1995, Japan also was hit by earthquake disaster in 6.9 magnitude that killed 5500 casualties.
When earthquake took place in the ocean which could brought about an ocean wave rushed towards the coastline, the destruction could be massive. The speed of tsunamiwave was over 750 kilometers per hour. It was triggered by movement of the fault which is the rupture when a large tectonic plate moved beneath another tectonic plate and suddenly the ocean was rising and creating wave moving towards the coast line. The thrust fault was thrust meaning that it pushed under the other.
Hazardous tsunami could be happened in the places for the most powerful earthquakessuch as in the ocean that triggered tsunami on some south asian countries in 2004 as well as the 2011 Japan earthquake. Although there was tsunami warning in Japan, the casualties still remained large (more than 18.000 casualties). However, it took much more casualties in 2004 when earthquake and tsunami disasters were hitting the Banda Aceh region, Indonesia (220.000 casualties).