Peru is located on zone of earthquakes because it is located on the boundary of existing two tectonic plates. The cause of earthquakes in peru were the Nazca Plate and South American plate. In Peru, the damage at that time in 1970 could not be minimized or to be disastrous because it was happened around 7.9 magnitude. The quake resulted in tens of thousands of casualties or approximately at around 70.000 losses of lives.
The earthquake was also called the Ancash earthquake in accordance with the location name of the earthquake has happened which was in a port in the north central state of Peru. The epicenter was in the Pacific sea, located about 25 kilometers off the country. Most victims was died due to inhabited buildings were not made in resistant to earthquake and was located on land that was prone to landslides.
Andes mountain range in Peru is a mountain that was formerly formed by the movement of the plate of Nazka in a subduction zone which means Nazka plate was subducting beneath South American plate. In addition, the subduction zone also was called thrust fault that produced Peru-Chile trench and mountains range which are active in the Peruvian hills. By adopting the name of the hills, the name of the earthquake in 1970 also later was called major Peruvian earthquake.
Geologic Location of Peru
Because Peru is located on the border of the Nazka and South American plate, Peru was automatically located in a seismic zone where earthquakes frequently occur. Besides the state of earthquake-prone buildings and landscape resulted in residential areas easily affected by landslides.
In 2007, earthquakes in peru also happened. It was reported that at least 400 people has died. In addition, there were about a thousand become seriously wounded. There were areas unfortunately became the most affected to be much casualties which was Ica region, located on the southern part of the capital of Peru. The strength of the earthquake was estimated at 7.8 with the epicenter just outside the coastline close to the Pacific ocean on Peru which is Ica. Because the inhabited houses was made of brick, so many died by collapsed houses. In addition, there were 300 people who died in the house of worship Cathedral that collapsed during the earthquake.
The impact of the theory developed by experts in the field of geology which was the theory of plate tectonics explained the cause for earthquake. There are as many as 20 small plates and 10 large plates located at the outermost layer of the earth’s core. Earth’s outer layer and a layer of hot rock found beneath each coat of the plate formed the tectonic plates. Because each plate is moving at a speed of several centimeters per year, a shift in the same direction or in opposite and grinding made the plates colliding, moving in opposite direction and moving through each other. And the stored tension finally could once be broken exceeding the power to save and arises earthquake.
In peru, Nazca plate subducted under the South American plate about 5 cm. In other words, the South American plate is moving through the nazca ocean towards pacific. Around 1970 and 2007 tension stored in the outermost layer of the Earth’s core turned into an earthquake.