There is a dangerous event and risk in earthquakes. The strength in earthquake can put someone in danger when hazards of earthquakes happen especially for inviduduals who lived in a place where is located around seismic activities and in a house that is not resistant to earthquake. The tremble of the land can cause houses collapse around the earthquake epicentre because the wave of seismic can trumble the land depending of its power.
Bigger magnitude earthquake can cause tremble in radius of many kilometers in the land. After the main quake happen, the quake called aftershock in lesser magnitude which is the reoccurrence of the shock wave caused by the release massive strength of the main quake can take place within a month. Otherwise, before the main quake happen in big magnitude, quake called foreshock which is the shock wave caused by the strength of the quake with less magnitude can happen days, weeks or months before.
Although earthquake cannot be predicted, there is a specific sensor in some location nearby the country prone to earthquake that deal with the hazard of earthquake such as tsunami. The tsunami warning sometimes is useful for the nation in shoreline or near the Pacific Ocean and in place called subduction zone.
The hazard of earthquake is a natural process caused by the earthquake. Hazard of earthquake can be liquefaction, floods, tsunami, fire, landslide and avalanches. Besides that earthquake in a large magnitude is a catastrophe that is dangerous, it also can have the hazards that cause further damage and danger to the people and a nation altogether.
In history, there has been example that earthquakes hazards can bring big damage so that the hazards incorporated with the earthquake can be a massive catastrophe altogether such as flames that was triggered in 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The flames came from the broken fire pipes that start the fire and scorch the whole city for three days. Tsunami incorporated with Japan earthquake 2011 created massive destruction on Japan mainland and breakdown of Fukushima nuclear power.
With regards to tsunami, it can be one meter as well as ninety miles away. This can travel within five hundred miles per hour. When tsunami hit the land, it can raise the tide for 35 meters. The giant tsunami tide took place in Japan in 2011 and North Sumatra in 2004.
Liquefaction is another hazard that earthquake can bring. It is incorporated with water, mud, in the ground. When water incorporated with the land, the earth floor gets lighter that can happen under building construction. Next all the construction can be fallen due to land liquefaction. Landslide is related with the hazard of the fall of the higher earth’s surface. The earthquake can trigger the landslide in a country land. Then the construction in that area can be fallen as well. Avalanche is of the earthquake hazard which is the fall of part of iced-rocky mountain.
Nepal earthquake 2015 is one of example that earthquake can trigger avalanche in Everest mount, the highest mountain in the world. Flood is last hazard of earthquake. It can be the water from the land or the lake and can make flood on the earth’s surface.
What Caused the Hazards of Earthquakes?
Tsunami is tide wave caused by the earthquake in the ocean. Japan earthquake 2011 caused the tsunami. In subduction zone around Pacific Ocean, the thrust fault caused the tsunami. Type of thrust fault is the condition of one tectonic plates pushed under or thrusted another tectonic plate. At that time, the quake in subduction zone eventually produced the tsunami tide wave.
Earthquake can be the tremble in the land that can create damage in the land and in the environment. It can damage the public work, infrastructure, energy plant. In the Christchurch earthquake 2011, the second biggest disaster in New Zealand, the earthquake killed the most through the collapse of building constructions.
Although there are many hazards of earthquakes, the primary cause of them is related with the large seismic activities that trigger the cracks on the road, damages of the infrastructures and other facilities.